Ilex decidua is a small tree native across the southeast, although rarely occurring in the mountains. It is most often found in floodplain forests. It grows best in full sun or part shade, and in moist to wet soils (although will tolerate occasional dryness and full shade). As the scientific name suggests, it is a deciduous holly. It produces small white flowers in the spring which attract pollinators, and showy red fruit in the fall. Songbirds and small mammals use Ilex decidua as a fall/winter food source. It works well for restoration projects, or as a specimen tree in a yard or rain garden.